Kazakhstan is a country located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It is the world's ninth-largest country by land area, and it shares borders with Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan to the south. The capital city is Nur-Sultan, which was previously known as Astana.
The country has a diverse population, with ethnic Kazakhs making up the majority, followed by Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, and others. The official language is Kazakh, although Russian is also widely spoken.
Kazakhstan is rich in natural resources, including oil, gas, and minerals such as uranium, copper, and gold. It has a strong economy, driven by its abundant natural resources, as well as its manufacturing and service sectors.
Kazakhstan has a long history, with archaeological evidence dating back to the Bronze Age. It was part of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, and later became part of the Russian Empire. It gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
The country has a diverse landscape, with vast steppes, deserts, mountains, and lakes. Its national parks and nature reserves are home to a wide range of flora and fauna, including the endangered snow leopard.
Kazakhstan is also known for its space program, with the Baikonur Cosmodrome being the world's largest and busiest space launch facility. It has sent numerous astronauts to the International Space Station and has plans for further space exploration in the future.